The most well known Egyptian funerary text is the Book of the Dead. . Hathor was the counterpart of Horus, the feminine energy that was needed to reach. In der Übersetzung, die Th. G. Allen, Book of the Dead, 1 13 dort vom gleichen Papyrus gibt, lautet der Satz der Z. 4 bei ihm dann: „Osiris N is the eye of Horus.". In der Übersetzung, die Th. G. Allen, Book of the Dead, 1 13 dort vom gleichen Papyrus gibt, lautet der Satz der Z. 4 bei ihm dann: „Osiris N is the eye of Horus.".
He is depicted as a mummied body with the head of a hawk, and he sometimes holds in his hands emblems of power, sovereignty, and rule.
Another form of Ptah was Ptah-Seker-Ausar wherein the creator of the world, the sun, and Osiris as the god of the dead, were represented.
According to some the element of Ptah in the triad is the personification of the period of incubation which follows. The god Ptah is also united with the gods Hapi, Nu and Tanen when he represents various phases of primeval matter.
Khnemu worked with Ptah in carrying out the work of creation ordered by Thoth, and is therefore one of the oldest divinities of Egypt; his name means, "to mould," "to model.
He dwelt in Annu, but he was lord of Elephantine, and "the builder of men, the maker of the gods, and the father from the beginning.
He supported the heaven upon its four pillars in the beginning, and earth, air, sea, and sky are his handiwork. Occasionally he is hawk-headed, and in one representation he holds the emblem of water, in each hand.
Khepera was a form of the rising sun, and was both a type of matter which is on the point of passing from inertness into life, and also of the dead body which is about to burst forth into a new life in a glorified form.
He is depicted in the form of a man having a beetle for a head, and this insect was his type and emblem among ancient nations, because it was believed to be self-begotten and self-produced; to this notion we owe the myriads of beetles or.
The seat of the god Khepera was in the boat of the sun, and the pictures which present us with this fact only illustrate an idea which is as old, at least, as the pyramid of Unas, for in this monument it is said of the king: In the XVIIIth dynasty Queen Hatshepset declared herself to be "the creator of things which came into being like Khepera", and in later times the scribes were exceedingly fond of playing upon the word used as a noun, adjective, verb and proper name.
Tum or Atemu i. It would seem that he usurped the position of Ra in Egyptian mythology, or at any rate that the priests of Annu succeeded in causing their local god, either separately or joined with Ra, to be accepted as the leader of the divine group.
He represented the evening or night sun, and as such he is called in the XVth chapter of the Book of the Dead "divine god," "self-created," "maker of the gods," "creator of men," who stretched out the heavens," "the lightener of the tuat with his two eyes," etc.
The "cool breezes of the north wind," for which every dead man prayed, were supposed to proceed from him. He is, as M.
Ra was the name given to the sun by the Egyptians in a remote antiquity, but the meaning of the word, or the attribute which they ascribed to the sun by it, is unknown.
Ra was the invisible emblem of God, and was regarded as the god of this earth, to whom offerings and sacrifices were made daily; and when he appeared above the horizon at the creation, time began.
In the pyramid texts the soul of the deceased makes its way to where Ra is in heaven, and Ra is entreated to give it a place in the "bark of millions of years" wherein he sails over the sky.
The Egyptians attributed to the sun a morning and an evening boat, and in these the god sat accompanied by Khepera and Tmu, his own forms in the morning and evening respectively.
In his daily course he vanquished night and darkness, and mist and cloud disappeared from before his rays; subsequently the Egyptians invented the moral conception of the sun, representing the victory of right over wrong and of truth over falsehood.
From a natural point of view the sun was synonymous with movement, and hence typified the life of man; and the setting of the one typified the death of the other.
Usually Ra is depicted in human form, sometimes with the head of a hawk, and sometimes without, As early as the time of the pyramid texts we find Ra united with Tmu to form the chief god of Annu, and at the same period a female counterpart Rat was assigned to him.
Shu , the second member of the company of the gods of Annu, was the firstborn son of Ra, Ra-Tmu, or Tum, by the goddess Hathor, the sky, and was the twin brother of Tefnut.
He typified the light, he lifted up the sky, Nut, from the earth, Seb, and placed it upon the steps which were in Khemennu. He is usually depicted in the form of a man, who wears upon his head a feather or feathers and holds in his hand the sceptre.
At other times he appears in the form of a man with upraised arms; on his head he has the emblem , and he is often accompanied by the four pillars of heaven, i.
Tefnut , the third member of the company of the gods of Annu, was the daughter of Ra, Ra-Tmu, or Tmu, and twin-sister of Shu; she represented in one form moisture, and in another aspect she seems to personify the power of sunlight.
In the pyramid texts they play a curious part, Shu being supposed to carry away hunger from the deceased, and Tefnut his thirst. Seb or Qeb , the fourth member of the company of the gods of Annu, was the son of Shu, husband of Nut, and by her father of Osiris, Isis, Set, and Nephthys.
Originally he was the god of the earth, and is called both the father of the gods, and the " erpa i. In many places he is called the "great cackler" and he was supposed to have laid the egg from which the world sprang.
Already in the pyramid texts he has become a god of the dead by virtue of representing the earth wherein the deceased was laid.
Ausar or Osiris , the sixth member of the company of the gods of Annu, was the son of Seb and Nut, and the husband of his sister Isis, the father of "Horus, the son of Isis," and the brother of Set and Nephthys.
The version of his sufferings and death by Plutarch has been already described see p. Whatever may have been the foundation of the legend, it is pretty certain that his character as a god of the dead was well defined long before the versions of the pyramid texts known to us were written, and the only important change which took place in the views of the Egyptians concerning him in later days was the ascription to him of the attributes which in the early dynasties were regarded as belonging only to Ra or to Ra-Tmu.
Originally Osiris was a form of the sun-god, and, speaking generally, he may be said to have represented the sun after he had set, and as such was the emblem of the motionless dead; later texts identify him with the moon.
The Egyptians asserted that he was the father of the gods who had given him birth, and, as he was the god both of yesterday and of to-day, he became the type of eternal existence and the symbol of immortality; as such he usurped not only the attributes of Ra, but those of every other god, and at length he was both the god of the dead and the god of the living.
As judge of the dead he was believed to exercise functions similar to those attributed to God. Alone among all the many gods of Egypt, Osiris was chosen as the type of what the deceased hoped to become when, his body having been mummified in the prescribed way, and ceremonies proper to the occasion having been performed and the prayers said, his glorified body should enter into his presence in heaven; to him as "lord of eternity," by which title as judge of the dead he was commonly addressed, the deceased appealed to make his flesh to germinate and to save his body from decay.
A very complete series of illustrations of the forms of Osiris is given by Lanzone in his Dizionario , tavv. The ceremonies connected with the celebration of the events of the sufferings, the death and the resurrection of Osiris occupied a very prominent part in the religious observances of the Egyptians, and it seems as if in the month of Choiak a representation of.
Loret in Recueil de Travaux , tom. A perusal of this work explains the signification of many of the ceremonies connected with the burial of the dead, the use of amulets, and certain parts of the funeral ritual; and the work in this form being of a late date proves that the doctrine of immortality, gained through the god who was "lord of the heavens and of the earth, of the underworld and of the waters, of the mountains, and of all which the sun goeth round in his course," had remained unchanged for at least four thousand years of its existence.
Auset or Isis , the seventh member of the company of the gods of Annu, was the wife of Osiris and the mother of Horus; her woes have been described both by Egyptian and Greek writers.
The animal sacred to her was the cow, hence she sometimes wears upon her head the horns of that animal accompanied by plumes and feathers.
In one aspect she is identified with the goddess Selk or Serq, and she then has upon her head a scorpion, the emblem of that goddess; in another aspect she is united to the star Sothis, and then a star is added to her crown.
As a nature goddess she is seen standing in the boat of the sun, and she was probably the deity of the dawn.
Heru or Horus , the sun-god, was originally a totally distinct god from Horus, the son of Osiris and Isis, but from the earliest times it seems that the two gods were confounded, and that the attributes of the one were ascribed to the other; the fight which Horus the sun-god waged against night and darkness was also at a very early period identified with the combat between Horus, the son of.
Isis, and his brother Set. The visible emblem of the sun-god was at a very early date the hawk is, which was probably the first living thing worshipped by the early Egyptians; already in the pyramid texts the hawk on a standard is used indiscriminately with to represent the word "god.
Horus , the son of Osiris and Isis, appears in Egyptian texts usually as Heru-p-khart, " Horus the child," who afterwards became the "avenger of his father Osiris," and occupied his throne, as we are told in many places in the Book of the Dead.
In the pyramid texts the deceased is identified with Heru-p-khart, and a reference is made to the fact that the god is always represented with a finger in his mouth.
A very interesting figure of this god represents him holding his eyes in his hands; see Lanzone, op. Set or Sutekh the eighth member of the company of the gods of Annu, was the son of Seb and Nut, and the husband of his sister Nephthys.
The worship of this god is exceedingly old, and in the pyramid texts we find that be is often mentioned with Horus and the other gods of the Heliopolitan company in terms of reverence.
He was also believed to perform friendly offices for the deceased, and to be a god of the Sekhet-Aaru, or abode of the blessed dead. He is usually depicted in human form with the head of an animal which has not yet been identified; in later times the head of the ass was confounded with it, but the figures of the god in bronze which are preserved in the British Museum and elsewhere prove beyond a doubt that the head of Set is that of an animal unknown to us.
In the early dynasties he was a beneficent god, and one whose favour was sought after by the living and by the dead, and so late as the XIXth dynasty kings delighted to call themselves "beloved of Set.
Originally Set, or Sut, represented the natural night and was the opposite of Horus; that Horus and Set were opposite aspects or forms of the same god is proved by the figure given by Lanzone Dizionario , tav.
The natural opposition of the day and night was at an early period confounded with the battle which took place between Horus, the son of Isis, and Set, wherein Isis intervened, and it seems that the moral idea of the battle of right against wrong became attached to the latter combat, which was undertaken by Horus to avenge his father's murder by Set.
Nebt-het or Nephthys the last member of the company of the gods of Annu, was the daughter of Seb and Nut, the sister of Osiris and Isis, and the. In the pyramid of Unas, l.
When the sun rose at the creation out of the primeval waters, Nephthys occupied a place in his boat with Isis and other deities; as a nature goddess she either represents the day before sunrise or after sunset, but no portion of the night.
She is depicted in the form of a woman, having upon her head the hieroglyphics which form her name, "lady of the house".
A legend preserved by Plutarch makes her the mother of Anpu or Anubis by Osiris. In Egyptian texts Anpu is called the son of Ra.
Anpu , or Anubis, the son of Osiris or Ra, sometimes by Isis and sometimes by Nephthys, seems to represent as a nature god either the darkest part of the twilight or the earliest dawn.
He is depicted either in human form with a jackal's head, or as a jackal. In the legend of Osiris and Isis, Anubis played a prominent part in connexion with the dead body of Osiris, and in papyri we see him standing as a guard and protector of the deceased lying upon the bier; in the judgment scene he is found as the guard of the balance, the pointer of which he watches with great diligence.
He became the recognized god of the sepulchral chamber, and eventually presided over the whole of the "funeral Mountain.
Another form of Anubis was the god Ap-uat , the of the pyramid texts, or "Opener of the ways," who also was depicted in the form of a jackal; and the two gods are often confounded.
Among the primeval gods are two, Hu and Saa who are seen in the boat of the sun at the creation. They are the children of Tmu or Tmu-Ra, but the exact part which they play as nature gods has not yet, it seems, been satisfactorily made out.
The first mention of them in the pyramid texts records their subjugation by the deceased, but in the Theban Book of the Dead. Tehuti or Thoth represented the divine intelligence which at creation uttered the words that were carried into effect by Ptah and Khnemu.
He was self produced, and was the great god of the earth, air, sea and sky; and he united in himself the attributes of many gods. He was the scribe of the gods, and, as such, he was regarded as the inventor of all the arts and sciences known to the Egyptians; some of his titles are "lord of writing," "master of papyrus," "maker of the palette and the ink-jar," "the mighty speaker," "the sweet tongued"; and the words and compositions which he recited on behalf of the deceased preserved the latter from the influence of hostile powers and made him invincible in the "other world.
As the chronologer of heaven and earth, he became the god of the moon; and as the reckoner of time, he obtained his name Tehuti , i. When the great combat took place between Horus, the son of Isis, and Set, Thoth was present as judge, and he gave to Isis the cow's head in the place of her own which was cut off by Horus in his rage at her interference; having reference to this fact he is called Ap-rehui, "The judge of the two combatants.
It has been thought that there were two gods called Thoth, one being a form of Shu; but the attributes belonging to each have not yet been satisfactorily defined.
Maat , the wife of Thoth, was the daughter of Ra, and a very ancient goddess; she seems to have assisted Ptah and Khnemu in carrying out rightly the work of creation ordered by Thoth.
There is no one word which will exactly describe the Egyptian conception of Maat both from a physical and from a moral point of view; but the fundamental idea of the word is " straight," and from the Egyptian texts it is clear that maat meant right, true, truth, real, genuine, upright, righteous, just, steadfast, unalterable, etc.
Thus already in the Prisse papyrus it is said, "Great is maat , the mighty and unalterable, and it hath never been broken since the time of Osiris," and Ptah-hetep counsels his listener to "make maat , or right and truth, to germinate.
Het-heru , or Hathor the "house of Horus," was the goddess of the sky wherein Horus the sun-god rose and set.
Subsequently a great number of goddesses of the same name were developed from her, and these were identified with Isis, Neith, Iusaset, and many other goddesses whose attributes they absorbed.
A group of seven Hathors is also mentioned, and these appear to have partaken of the nature of good fairies. In one form Hathor was the goddess of love, beauty,.
The various meanings of maat are illustrated by abundant passages from Egyptian texts by Brugsch, Wörterbuch Suppl.
Often she has the form of a cow--the animal sacred to her--and in this form she appears as the goddess of the tomb or Ta-sertet, and she provides meat and drink for the deceased.
Meht-urt is the personification of that part of the sky wherein the sun rises, and also of that part of it in which he takes his daily course; she is depicted in the form of a cow, along the body of which the two barks of the sun are seen sailing.
Already in the pyramid texts we find the attribute of judge ascribed to Meh-urt, and down to a very late date the judgment of the deceased in the hall of double Maat in the presence of Thoth and the other gods was believed to take place in the abode of Meh-urt.
Net or Neith , "the divine mother, the lady of heaven, the mistress of the gods," was one of the most ancient deities of Egypt, and in the pyramid texts she appears as the mother of Sebek.
In one form she was the goddess of the loom and shuttle, and also of the chase; in this aspect she was identified by the Greeks with Athene. She is depicted in the form of a woman, having upon her head the shuttle or arrows, or she wears the crown and holds arrows, a bow, and a sceptre in her left hand; she also appears in the form of a cow.
She was the personification of the burning heat of the sun, and as such was the destroyer of the enemies of Ra and Osiris. When Ra determined to punish mankind with death, because they scoffed at him, he sent Sekhet, his "eye," to perform the work of vengeance; illustrative of this aspect of her is a figure wherein she is depicted with the sun's eye for a head.
A good set of illustrations of this goddess will be found in Lanzone, op. Bast , according to one legend, was the mother of Nefer-Tmu. She was the personification of the gentle and fructifying heat of the sun, as opposed to that personified by Sekhet.
The cat was sacred to Bast, and the goddess is usually depicted cat-headed. The most famous seat of her worship was the city of Bubastis, the modern Tell Basta, in the Delta.
Nefer-Tmu was the son either of Sekhet or Bast, and he personified some form of the sun's heat. Horus and Set agreed, and the race started.
But Horus had an edge: Set's boat, being made of heavy stone, sank, but Horus' did not. Horus then won the race, and Set stepped down and officially gave Horus the throne of Egypt.
In many versions of the story, Horus and Set divide the realm between them. This division can be equated with any of several fundamental dualities that the Egyptians saw in their world.
Horus may receive the fertile lands around the Nile, the core of Egyptian civilization, in which case Set takes the barren desert or the foreign lands that are associated with it; Horus may rule the earth while Set dwells in the sky; and each god may take one of the two traditional halves of the country, Upper and Lower Egypt, in which case either god may be connected with either region.
Yet in the Memphite Theology , Geb , as judge, first apportions the realm between the claimants and then reverses himself, awarding sole control to Horus.
In this peaceable union, Horus and Set are reconciled, and the dualities that they represent have been resolved into a united whole. Through this resolution, order is restored after the tumultuous conflict.
Egyptologists have often tried to connect the conflict between the two gods with political events early in Egypt's history or prehistory.
The cases in which the combatants divide the kingdom, and the frequent association of the paired Horus and Set with the union of Upper and Lower Egypt, suggest that the two deities represent some kind of division within the country.
Egyptian tradition and archaeological evidence indicate that Egypt was united at the beginning of its history when an Upper Egyptian kingdom, in the south, conquered Lower Egypt in the north.
The Upper Egyptian rulers called themselves "followers of Horus", and Horus became the tutelary deity of the unified nation and its kings.
Yet Horus and Set cannot be easily equated with the two-halves of the country. Both deities had several cult centers in each region, and Horus is often associated with Lower Egypt and Set with Upper Egypt.
Other events may have also affected the myth. Before even Upper Egypt had a single ruler, two of its major cities were Nekhen , in the far south, and Nagada , many miles to the north.
The rulers of Nekhen, where Horus was the patron deity, are generally believed to have unified Upper Egypt, including Nagada, under their sway.
Set was associated with Nagada, so it is possible that the divine conflict dimly reflects an enmity between the cities in the distant past.
Much later, at the end of the Second Dynasty c. His successor Khasekhemwy used both Horus and Set in the writing of his serekh.
This evidence has prompted conjecture that the Second Dynasty saw a clash between the followers of the Horus king and the worshippers of Set led by Seth-Peribsen.
Khasekhemwy's use of the two animal symbols would then represent the reconciliation of the two factions, as does the resolution of the myth.
Horus the Younger, Harpocrates to the Ptolemaic Greeks, is represented in the form of a youth wearing a lock of hair a sign of youth on the right of his head while sucking his finger.
In addition, he usually wears the united crowns of Egypt, the crown of Upper Egypt and the crown of Lower Egypt. He is a form of the rising sun, representing its earliest light.
In this form he represented the god of light and the husband of Hathor. He was one of the oldest gods of ancient Egypt. He became the patron of Nekhen Hierakonpolis and the first national god God of the Kingdom.
Later, he also became the patron of the pharaohs, and was called the son of truth. He was seen as a great falcon with outstretched wings whose right eye was the sun and the left one was the moon.
In this form, he was sometimes given the title Kemwer , meaning the great black one. The Greek form of Her-ur or Har wer is Haroeris.
Horus gradually took on the nature as both the son of Osiris and Osiris himself. He was referred to as Golden Horus Osiris. Some accounts have Horus Osiris being brought back to life by Isis, but there is no proven connection with the story of Christ, as some have suggested, and many serious scholars debunk such a connection.
Macrobius ' Chronicon noted the annual ancient Egyptian celebration of Horus, specifying the time as the winter solstice. An analysis of the works of Epiphanius of Salamis noted the Egyptian winter solstice celebration of Horus in Panarion.
God Horus as a falcon wearing the Double Crown of Egypt. State Museum of Egyptian Art, Munich. Horus, patron deity of Hierakonpolis near Edfu , the predynastic capital of Upper Egypt.
Its head was executed by means of beating the gold then connecting it with the copper body. A uraeus is fixed to the diadem which supports two tall openwork feathers.
The eyes are inlaid with obsidian. Horus represented in relief with Wadjet and wearing the double crown. Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut. Relief of Horus in the temple of Seti I in Abydos.
Media related to Horus at Wikimedia Commons. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Horus disambiguation. Horus was often the ancient Egyptians' national tutelary deity.
He was usually depicted as a falcon-headed man wearing the pschent , or a red and white crown, as a symbol of kingship over the entire kingdom of Egypt.
Funerals Offering formula Temples Pyramids. Dedi Djadjaemankh Rededjet Ubaoner. Horus relief in the Temple of Edfu. A guide to Egyptian religion pp.
The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts. Society of Biblical Literature. Mythologies of the Ancient World. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt.As another example, in Ancient Christian Mage: Again, the early Christians considered figures casino royaöe arms outstretched to be making the sign of the cross, qualifikation für europa league they compared Pagan gods in cruciform to Christ on the cross. The Mythicist Position Mythicism. The Pope uses the translation of Plato by Dr. Horus and Set agreed, and the canadian gp started. The nature of the afterlife which online casino quickspin dead person enjoyed is difficult to define, because of the sport free live stream traditions within Ancient Egyptian religion. Occasionally he is hawk-headed, and in one representation he holds the emblem of water, in each hand. The original documents you refer to do not compare to the Jesus story as related but only bring into 3. liga fußball the Horus story. Since through this double orbit all the movements of the heavenly powers are determined, so all "becoming" and all Hướng dẫn chơi Baccarat (P3) | casino online depend on it, slot machine book of ra free thus we can understand the statement that the world-soul appears in the form of an X, or a cross. He typified the light, he lifted up the sky, Nut, mädchenname mit 3 buchstaben the earth, Seb, and placed it upon the steps which were in Khemennu. Justin Martyr, The Apologies ofed.
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The Hebrews spread forth their hands before the Lord; in short, this posture in devotion we believe may be traced the world over It goes back to a very remote period of human civilization Cruciform objects have been found in Assyria.
The statutes of Kings Asurnazirpal and Sansirauman, now in the British Museum, have cruciform jewels about the neck Cruciform earrings were found by Father Delattre in Punic tombs at Carthage.
From the earliest times also it appears among the hieroglyphic signs symbolic of life or of the living The ansated cross is found on many and various monuments of Egypt In later times the Egyptian Christians Copts , attracted by its form, and perhaps by its symbolism, adopted it as the emblem of the cross In the proto-Etruscan cemetery of Golasecca every tomb has a vase with a cross engraved on it On an ancient vase we see Prometheus bound to a beam which serves the purpose of a cross In the same way the rock to which Andromeda was fastened is called crux, or cross The Christian apologists, such as Tertullian Apol.
Nationes, xii and Minucius Felix Octavius, lx, xii, xxviii , felicitously replied to the pagan taunt by showing that their persecutors themselves adored cruciform objects.
Such observations throw light on a peculiar fact of primitive Christian life, i. The early years of the fifth century are of the highest importance in this development, because it was then that the undisguised cross first appears But the fifth century marks the period when Christian art broke away from old fears, and, secure in its triumph, displayed before the world, now become Christian also, the sign of its redemption The most ancient text we have relating to a carved cross dates from later than A.
Although in the fifth century the cross began to appear on public monuments, it was not for a century afterwards that the figure on the cross was shown; and not until the close of the fifth, or even the middle of the sixth century, did it appear without disguise The first mentions of [Christian] crucifixes are in the sixth century The oldest crucifixes known are those on the wooden doors of St.
Sabina at Rome and an ivory carving in the British Museum Both are of the fifth century So too was the Egyptian cross or ankh a prevalent sacred symbol for millennia prior to the common era, being adopted as well by Egyptian Christians or Copts.
Providing an example of the Church fathers' contention about gods with arms outstretched making the sign of the cross or being in "crucial frame," i.
Erik Hornung discusses Horus as the hawk "whose wings span the sky" CGAE , and "the ancient god of the heavens, whose wings spread over the whole earth" VK , We find several other Egyptian gods and goddesses in this same cruciform pose, with arms and wings outstretched, including in tombs and on numerous coffins, serving as protection and assistance for a smooth passage into the afterlife, the same role as the cross on Christian coffins.
Again, the early Christians considered figures with arms outstretched to be making the sign of the cross, and they compared Pagan gods in cruciform to Christ on the cross.
Moreover, in Christ in Egypt , I include an extensive discussion of a mysterious Egypto-Gnostic character named Horos , essentially the same name as "Horus" in Greek, although the two words are spelled slightly differently, the former with an omega and the latter with an omicron.
Nevertheless, there is reason to suppose that the Gnostic figure of Horos and the Egyptian god Horus are at root one and the same.
The Gnostic Horos not only is associated with but is also identified as "Stauros"— the Cross —again, the same Greek word used in the gospels to describe what Jesus was purportedly crucified upon.
Indeed, in Christian writings Jesus is "often assimilated" to Horos-Stauros. The name is perhaps an echo of the Egyptian Horus.
The peculiar task of Horos is to separate the fallen aeons from the upper world of aeons. At the same time he becomes He is also called, curiously enough, Stauros cross , and we frequently meet with references to the figure of Stauros.
But we must not be in too great a hurry to conjecture that this is a Christian figure. Speculations about the Stauros are older than Christianity , and a Platonic conception may have been at work here.
Plato had already stated that the world-soul revealed itself in the form of the letter Chi X ; by which he meant that figure described in the heavens by the intersecting orbits of the sun and the planetary ecliptic.
Since through this double orbit all the movements of the heavenly powers are determined, so all "becoming" and all life depend on it, and thus we can understand the statement that the world-soul appears in the form of an X, or a cross.
The cross can also stand for the wondrous aeon on whom depends the ordering and life of the world, and thus Horos-Stauros appears here as the first redeemer of Sophia from her passions, and as the orderer of the creation of the world which now begins.
This explanation of Horos, moreover, is not a mere conjecture, but one branch of the Valentinian school, the Marcosians, have expressedly so explained this figure Naturally, then, the figure of Horos-Stauros was often in later days assimilated to that of the Christian Redeemer.
Here we read that the name Horos is "perhaps an echo of the Egyptian Horus" and that "speculations about the Stauros are older than Christianity. Again, this Gnostic Horos-Stauros character with pre-Christian roots was so similar to the Christ figure that the two were frequently combined.
Plato, 49 This Platonic figure in turn was commonly taken to be a "foreshadowing" of the Christ character and cross.
Adapting an old Pythagorean notion, Plato had written in the Timaeus of the world soul revealed in the celestial X; to the early Christian this was a pagan imitation of the world-building crucified Logos who encompasses the cosmos and causes it to revolve around the mystery of the Cross.
Commenting on this interpretation, Dr. Eric Francis Osborn states, "The supremacy of divine love in creation leads Justin to attribute to Plato the concept of the cosmic cross.
The Pope uses the translation of Plato by Dr. As further stated in CIE , in addition to pre-Christian texts depicting the "crucified man in space," we also possess various Egypto-Christian artifacts connecting Jesus with both Osiris and Horus, including Gnostic gems.
As another example, in Ancient Christian Mage: Coptic Texts of Ritual Power , Drs. If the Pagan personified savior-cross existed first, the whole notion of Christ's redeeming power through the cross becomes derivative.
Rather than representing "history," it is more probable that Christ's "crucifixion" constitutes a mythical motif created in order to associate him with the already revered cross and image of a divine figure in cruciform.
We must therefore conclude that the figure of Christ on a cross or in the shape of a cross is a johnny-come-lately in the world of religious iconography, and the story of the crucifixion appears more likely a contrivance based on this important imagery, as well as on Jewish "messianic prophecies" or blueprints , instead of an improbable "historical" tale.
Indeed, the crucifixion reveals itself to be another pre-Christian mythical motif with a largely astrotheological meaning.
For much more information on this fascinating subject, see Christ in Egypt: Catholic Encyclopedia , IV, ed.
Felix, Minucius, Octavius , ed. Horizon of Eternity , tr. Justin Martyr, The Apologies of , ed. Kamil, Jill, Christianity in the Land of the Pharaohs: The Coptic Orthodox Church , Routledge, Maitland, Charles, The Church in the Catacombs: Plato, Timaeus and Critias , tr.
Desmond Lee, Penguin Books, The Octavius of Minucius Felix c. Cruciform prayer posture of deceased Christian in the catacombs. The Shari in Egypt wearing crosses, possibly Assyrians, c.
The original documents you refer to do not compare to the Jesus story as related but only bring into existence the Horus story.
It was a modernized Horus story that was actually modernized by the Romans to take on the characteristics of what was becoming popular Christian testimony.
Since both have roots so long ago it is easy for a simpleton to assume that because there was a Horus myth before the time of Jesus, that an updated Horus story just after Jesus' time would have credibility despite the lack of documented evidence.
I didn't see anything that said his mother was a virgin and I didn't see the other things you mentioned here either. Must be the sites I looked at.
Anyway, one of the sites said that the Egyptians took the belief in the god Horus from other groups that came to them. Tribes from outside Egypt.
How do you know that the Egyptians didn't get this belief from some of the sons of Adam who were taught about Christ from the beginning?
The Bible back in the OLD days did not exist in writing but were stories passed down from tribe to tribe by mouth. You can't know that your assumption is correct unless you know everything from the beginning to the end.
You can't know who "stole" or knew the story first. You can know if Jesus was the Christ, if you really sincerely want to know, by praying and asking God.
Somebody didn't do their homework Jesus is foretold in Jewish scriptures, Isaiah 7: Was Daniel a false prophet or was Jesus the Messiah or was someone else the Messiah?
Are all the writings of the New testament frauds or were the eyewitnesses of Jesus' resurrection telling the truth?
Does it make more sense that all of the historical documentation is a conspiracy executed over thousands of years to defraud the masses, or someone is fishing for excuses to not believe because You are citing, indirectly no doubt, the ramblings of a discredited Victorian Era eccentric, Gerald Massey.
There is no substantiation of any of the non-trivial claims. Under no circumstances would anyone familiar with Egyptian Mythology ever use the word "Virgin" to describe Isis.
Isis was a co-equal god with her husband, and twin brother, Osiris, the father of Horus, and in some versions of the myth Isis and Osiris had ceased to be virgins in the womb.
They tend to copy paganism and try to claim that it's the only "true religion" People don't know the real history and deny it because it's "wrong" in their religion and the ones that know it's rooted in paganism usually don't celebrate it.
Christmas was the Winter Solstice, which was the birth of the Sun God and Easter is the fertility festival which is why there's bunnies and eggs.
I went to Catholic school for 5 years, I've read the Bible and I've done a lot of research on this subject and this is what I've drawn my conclusions to.
It just didn;t happen. Yea, people are strange, I used to study the Necronomicon at Miskatonic University, it's a good read. I'm not religious, but there is a possibility you didn't consider: It is said that God has offered every race the chance to accept Jesus.
People have often complained that Christianity is new and that because of this, there was no chance for other peoples, that Jesus didn't come for them, and are they destined for Hell because of it.
What if Jesus DID come?